Amphetamines have many adverse effects on the brain, the central nervous system and the user’s body. When amphetamines are used, the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine are released from nerve endings within the brain and the ability for the neurotransmitters to reuptake is inhibited. This causes an influx of the neurotransmitters at the nerve endings or synapses of the brain which can lead to various problems and side-effects.
When the nerve cells within the brain and the spinal cord are activated by amphetamines, there is an increase in mental alertness and the ability for the user to stay awake, focused and to concentrate. This is why amphetamines are sometimes used in the treatment of ADD or ADHD, to help those with these behavioral disorders to focus and it’s also why amphetamine containing drugs are used in the treatment of sleep disorders such as narcolepsy to help the user stay awake.
According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, amphetamines effects last up to 4 hours or sometimes even longer depending on the dosage, the type of amphetamine taken and other factors. The physiological effects of amphetamines are similar to those of cocaine, both produce a euphoric state and increased alertness but the effects of cocaine only last about an hour and the effects of amphetamines tend to last at least four times that.
When amphetamines are mixed with other prescription drugs or with alcohol can have various effects including an enhanced alertness, an increase in energy or other effects. There are also inherent dangers associated with the effects of amphetamines and alcohol due to the increase in energy that comes from amphetamines paired with the downplay of energy from alcohol. Users who take both amphetamines and alcohol at the same time are at risk of heart attack, stroke or excessively drinking which has additional liabilities.
Using amphetamines for a prolonged period of time, increased use of amphetamines or sustained use can lead to extreme problems and additional side effects including: